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Question 1
QUESTIONS ONE (1) TO FIVE (5) RELATE TO SCENARIO ONE (1) ONLY
Scenario 1
The five tables presented below show the association between smoking and lung cancer in a case-control study with all data collected by questionnaire from cases and controls. The first table shows the overall association, the second and third show the association among those with and without a history of working with asbestos exposure, and the fourth and fifth show the association by gender.
Table 1.
Lung Cancer No Lung Cancer
Smoker 90 30
Non-smoker 10 70
Table 2. Asbestos History Negative
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 70 26
Non-smoker 9 55
Table 3. Asbestos History Positive
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 20 4
Non-smoker 1 15
Table 4. Females
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 17 4
Non-smoker 3 16
Table 5. Males
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 73 26
Non-smoker 7 54
Given the type of study design what is the most appropriate measure of effect for the association for each table?
A. Odds ratio
B. Incidence
C. Relative risk
D. Prevalence
E. None of the above
1 points
Question 2
QUESTIONS ONE (1) TO FIVE (5) RELATE TO SCENARIO ONE (1) ONLY
Scenario 1
The five tables presented below show the association between smoking and lung cancer in a case-control study with all data collected by questionnaire from cases and controls. The first table shows the overall association, the second and third show the association among those with and without a history of working with asbestos exposure, and the fourth and fifth show the association by gender.
Table 1.
Lung Cancer No Lung Cancer
Smoker 90 30
Non-smoker 10 70
Table 2. Asbestos History Negative
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 70 26
Non-smoker 9 55
Table 3. Asbestos History Positive
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 20 4
Non-smoker 1 15
Table 4. Females
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 17 4
Non-smoker 3 16
Table 5. Males
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 73 26
Non-smoker 7 54
The process of setting out the results of the 2 x 2 tables according to a third factor is called what?
A. Confounding
B. Standardisation
C. Stratification
D. Effect modification
E. None of the above
Question 3
QUESTIONS ONE (1) TO FIVE (5) RELATE TO SCENARIO ONE (1) ONLY
Scenario 1
The five tables presented below show the association between smoking and lung cancer in a case-control study with all data collected by questionnaire from cases and controls. The first table shows the overall association, the second and third show the association among those with and without a history of working with asbestos exposure, and the fourth and fifth show the association by gender.
Table 1.
Lung Cancer No Lung Cancer
Smoker 90 30
Non-smoker 10 70
Table 2. Asbestos History Negative
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 70 26
Non-smoker 9 55
Table 3. Asbestos History Positive
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 20 4
Non-smoker 1 15
Table 4. Females
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 17 4
Non-smoker 3 16
Table 5. Males
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 73 26
Non-smoker 7 54
Given that the effect size for the association between smoking and lung cancer described in Table 1 is 21.0 and the effect size for tables 2 and 3 is 16.5 and 75.0 respectively, which of the following best describes the reason for the effect of past asbestos exposure on the association between smoking and lung cancer?
A. Recall bias
B. Mediation
C. Confounding
D. Effect modification
E. None of the above
Question 4
QUESTIONS ONE (1) TO FIVE (5) RELATE TO SCENARIO ONE (1) ONLY
Scenario 1
The five tables presented below show the association between smoking and lung cancer in a case-control study with all data collected by questionnaire from cases and controls. The first table shows the overall association, the second and third show the association among those with and without a history of working with asbestos exposure, and the fourth and fifth show the association by gender.
Table 1.
Lung Cancer No Lung Cancer
Smoker 90 30
Non-smoker 10 70
Table 2. Asbestos History Negative
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 70 26
Non-smoker 9 55
Table 3. Asbestos History Positive
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 20 4
Non-smoker 1 15
Table 4. Females
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 17 4
Non-smoker 3 16
Table 5. Males
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 73 26
Non-smoker 7 54
Given that the effect size for the association between smoking and lung cancer described in Table 1 is 21.0 and the effect size for tables 4 and 5 is 22.3 and 21.7 respectively, which of the following best describes the reason for the effect of gender on the association between smoking and lung cancer?
A. Selection bias
B. Mediation
C. Confounding
D. Effect modification
E. Measurement error
1 points
Question 5
QUESTIONS ONE (1) TO FIVE (5) RELATE TO SCENARIO ONE (1) ONLY
Scenario 1
The five tables presented below show the association between smoking and lung cancer in a case-control study with all data collected by questionnaire from cases and controls. The first table shows the overall association, the second and third show the association among those with and without a history of working with asbestos exposure, and the fourth and fifth show the association by gender.
Table 1.
Lung Cancer No Lung Cancer
Smoker 90 30
Non-smoker 10 70
Table 2. Asbestos History Negative
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 70 26
Non-smoker 9 55
Table 3. Asbestos History Positive
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 20 4
Non-smoker 1 15
Table 4. Females
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 17 4
Non-smoker 3 16
Table 5. Males
Lung Cancer
Yes No
Smoker 73 26
Non-smoker 7 54
Which of the following forms of systematic error is most likely to affect the results of the above case-control study?
A. Lead-time bias
B. Non-response bias
C. Recall bias
D. Selection bias
E. Surveillance bias
Question 6
QUESTIONS SIX (6) TO ELEVEN (11) RELATE TO SCENARIO TWO (2) ONLY
Scenario 2
There is some concern in the medical community that people who consume a diet high in saturated fat are at a greater risk of developing Dementia. A study is following a group of 2000 healthy people who consume a diet high in saturated fat and a group of 2000 healthy people (of the same age and gender) who consume the recommended dietary intake of saturated fat over 5 years to document the occurrence of Dementia. At the end of the follow-up, there are 100 people who developed Dementia in the 'high-fat' group and 80 people in the 'low-fat' group who developed Dementia.
What type of study is this?
A. Case-control
B. Cross-sectional
C. Ecological
D. Prospective cohort
E. Retrospective cohort
Question 7
QUESTIONS SIX (6) TO ELEVEN (11) RELATE TO SCENARIO TWO (2) ONLY
Scenario 2
There is some concern in the medical community that people who consume a diet high in saturated fat are at a greater risk of developing Dementia. A study is following a group of 2000 healthy people who consume a diet high in saturated fat and a group of 2000 healthy people (of the same age and gender) who consume the recommended dietary intake of saturated fat over 5 years to document the occurrence of Dementia. At the end of the follow-up, there are 100 people who developed Dementia in the 'high-fat' group and 80 people in the 'low-fat' group who developed Dementia.
The ratio of the incidence (relative risk) of developing Dementia in those who consume a diet high in saturated fat (compared to those who consume the recommended daily amount of saturated fat ) over 5-years is:
A. 2.0
B. 1.25
C. 10.0
D. 0.1
E. Not able to be calculated given the available information
Question 8
QUESTIONS SIX (6) TO ELEVEN (11) RELATE TO SCENARIO TWO (2) ONLY
Scenario 2
There is some concern in the medical community that people who consume a diet high in saturated fat are at a greater risk of developing Dementia. A study is following a group of 2000 healthy people who consume a diet high in saturated fat and a group of 2000 healthy people (of the same age and gender) who consume the recommended dietary intake of saturated fat over 5 years to document the occurrence of Dementia. At the end of the follow-up, there are 100 people who developed Dementia in the 'high-fat' group and 80 people in the 'low-fat' group who developed Dementia.
The results of the study indicate:
A. A diet high in saturated fat is necessary and sufficient cause of Dementia.
B. None of the results are statistically significant.
C. The cumulative incidence of Dementia is lower in those who consume a low saturated fat diet.
D. That all people should follow a low saturated fat diet to prevent Dementia.
E. None of the above.
Question 9
QUESTIONS SIX (6) TO ELEVEN (11) RELATE TO SCENARIO TWO (2) ONLY
Scenario 2
There is some concern in the medical community that people who consume a diet high in saturated fat are at a greater risk of developing Dementia. A study is following a group of 2000 healthy people who consume a diet high in saturated fat and a group of 2000 healthy people (of the same age and gender) who consume the recommended dietary intake of saturated fat over 5 years to document the occurrence of Dementia. At the end of the follow-up, there are 100 people who developed Dementia in the 'high-fat' group and 80 people in the 'low-fat' group who developed Dementia.
Which one of the following options is unlikely to be a confounder that could distort the association between dietary saturated fat intake and the development of Dementia?
A. Alcohol intake
B. Family history of Dementia
C. Physical inactivity
D. Smoking
E. Socioeconomic status
Question 10
QUESTIONS SIX (6) TO ELEVEN (11) RELATE TO SCENARIO TWO (2) ONLY
Scenario 2
There is some concern in the medical community that people who consume a diet high in saturated fat are at a greater risk of developing Dementia. A study is following a group of 2000 healthy people who consume a diet high in saturated fat and a group of 2000 healthy people (of the same age and gender) who consume the recommended dietary intake of saturated fat over 5 years to document the occurrence of Dementia. At the end of the follow-up, there are 100 people who developed Dementia in the 'high-fat' group and 80 people in the 'low-fat' group who developed Dementia.
This study is looking at:
A. Incident and prevalent Dementia
B. Prevalent Dementia
C. Incident Dementia
D. Cumulative incidence ratio for Dementia
E. C and D are both correct
Question 11
QUESTIONS SIX (6) TO ELEVEN (11) RELATE TO SCENARIO TWO (2) ONLY
Scenario 2
There is some concern in the medical community that people who consume a diet high in saturated fat are at a greater risk of developing Dementia. A study is following a group of 2000 healthy people who consume a diet high in saturated fat and a group of 2000 healthy people (of the same age and gender) who consume the recommended dietary intake of saturated fat over 5 years to document the occurrence of Dementia. At the end of the follow-up, there are 100 people who developed Dementia in the 'high-fat' group and 80 people in the 'low-fat' group who developed Dementia.
The inclusion and exclusion criteria for the high fat and those who consume the recommended daily amount of saturated fat groups impact mainly on the:
A. Internal validity
B. External validity
C. Precision
D. Confounders
E. None of the above
Question 12
QUESTIONS TWELVE (12) TO SIXTEEN (16) RELATE TO SCENARIO THREE (3) ONLY
Scenario 3
You are putting together a report on the health of Australia for the federal minister. You are trying to figure out the magnitude of the problem of hypertension, and whether over the lifetime of the typical Australia, hypertension will be diagnosed more in men or in women or equally in both. You are not sure whether hypertension is indeed more common in males, or whether females just get hypertension in their older years. You obtain the following data from the Australian bureau of statistics (ABS):
The number of people (per 1,000) reporting hypertension by age group and gender in 2015 was:
0-24 yrs 25-44 yrs 45-64 yrs 65+ yrs
Males 4.1 53.1 216.1 387.5
Females 6.5 36.7 222.6 440.3
You decide to work out an age standardized incidence ratio for hypertension, analogous to an age standardized mortality ratio for death. The ABS provides you with the Australian age distribution per 100,000 people shown below:
0-24 yrs 25-44 yrs 45-64 yrs 65+ yrs
38,000 31,000 20,000 11,000
The correct method to calculate the age standardised incidence ratio for hypertension in males and females using the ABS Australian age distribution data as the reference population is known as:
A. Indirect standardisation
B. Stratification
C. Direct standardisation
D. Adjustment
E. None of the above
Question 13
QUESTIONS TWELVE (12) TO SIXTEEN (16) RELATE TO SCENARIO THREE (3) ONLY
Scenario 3
You are putting together a report on the health of Australia for the federal minister. You are trying to figure out the magnitude of the problem of hypertension, and whether over the lifetime of the typical Australia, hypertension will be diagnosed more in men or in women or equally in both. You are not sure whether hypertension is indeed more common in males, or whether females just get hypertension in their older years. You obtain the following data from the Australian bureau of statistics (ABS):
The number of people (per 1,000) reporting hypertension by age group and gender in 2015 was:
0-24 yrs 25-44 yrs 45-64 yrs 65+ yrs
Males 4.1 53.1 216.1 387.5
Females 6.5 36.7 222.6 440.3
You decide to work out an age standardized incidence ratio for hypertension, analogous to an age standardized mortality ratio for death. The ABS provides you with the Australian age distribution per 100,000 people shown below:
0-24 yrs 25-44 yrs 45-64 yrs 65+ yrs
38,000 31,000 20,000 11,000
Using the above data the expected number of men with hypertension in the aged 65+ years group is:
A. 4262.5
B. 4322
C. 247
D. 900
E. 302.7
Question 14
QUESTIONS TWELVE (12) TO SIXTEEN (16) RELATE TO SCENARIO THREE (3) ONLY
Scenario 3
You are putting together a report on the health of Australia for the federal minister. You are trying to figure out the magnitude of the problem of hypertension, and whether over the lifetime of the typical Australia, hypertension will be diagnosed more in men or in women or equally in both. You are not sure whether hypertension is indeed more common in males, or whether females just get hypertension in their older years. You obtain the following data from the Australian bureau of statistics (ABS):
The number of people (per 1,000) reporting hypertension by age group and gender in 2015 was:
0-24 yrs 25-44 yrs 45-64 yrs 65+ yrs
Males 4.1 53.1 216.1 387.5
Females 6.5 36.7 222.6 440.3
You decide to work out an age standardized incidence ratio for hypertension, analogous to an age standardized mortality ratio for death. The ABS provides you with the Australian age distribution per 100,000 people shown below:
0-24 yrs 25-44 yrs 45-64 yrs 65+ yrs
38,000 31,000 20,000 11,000
Using the above data the expected number of women with hypertension in the 25-44 years group is:
A. 1646.1
B. 1137.7
C. 180.6
D. 77.8
E. 150.1
Question 15
QUESTIONS TWELVE (12) TO SIXTEEN (16) RELATE TO SCENARIO THREE (3) ONLY
Scenario 3
You are putting together a report on the health of Australia for the federal minister. You are trying to figure out the magnitude of the problem of hypertension, and whether over the lifetime of the typical Australia, hypertension will be diagnosed more in men or in women or equally in both. You are not sure whether hypertension is indeed more common in males, or whether females just get hypertension in their older years. You obtain the following data from the Australian bureau of statistics (ABS):
The number of people (per 1,000) reporting hypertension by age group and gender in 2015 was:
0-24 yrs 25-44 yrs 45-64 yrs 65+ yrs
Males 4.1 53.1 216.1 387.5
Females 6.5 36.7 222.6 440.3
You decide to work out an age standardized incidence ratio for hypertension, analogous to an age standardized mortality ratio for death. The ABS provides you with the Australian age distribution per 100,000 people shown below:
0-24 yrs 25-44 yrs 45-64 yrs 65+ yrs
38,000 31,000 20,000 11,000
The standardised incidence ratio for hypertension per 100,000 men is:
A. 5002.6
B. 8322.4
C. 10586
D. 10386
E. Not able to be calculated using this data.
Question 16
QUESTIONS TWELVE (12) TO SIXTEEN (16) RELATE TO SCENARIO THREE (3) ONLY
Scenario 3
You are putting together a report on the health of Australia for the federal minister. You are trying to figure out the magnitude of the problem of hypertension, and whether over the lifetime of the typical Australia, hypertension will be diagnosed more in men or in women or equally in both. You are not sure whether hypertension is indeed more common in males, or whether females just get hypertension in their older years. You obtain the following data from the Australian bureau of statistics (ABS):
The number of people (per 1,000) reporting hypertension by age group and gender in 2015 was:
0-24 yrs 25-44 yrs 45-64 yrs 65+ yrs
Males 4.1 53.1 216.1 387.5
Females 6.5 36.7 222.6 440.3
You decide to work out an age standardized incidence ratio for hypertension, analogous to an age standardized mortality ratio for death. The ABS provides you with the Australian age distribution per 100,000 people shown below:
0-24 yrs 25-44 yrs 45-64 yrs 65+ yrs
38,000 31,000 20,000 11,000
The standardised incidence ratio for hypertension per 100,000 women is:
A. 6345.7
B. 10680
C. 10386
D. 9976.4
E. Not able to be calculated using this data.
Question 17
Questions SEVENTEEN (17) TO TWENTY (20) are general questions related to course work so far this semester.
In general, selection bias affects:
A. Internal validity
B. Statistical power
C. Precision
D. Sample size
E. Generalisability
Question 18
Questions SEVENTEEN (17) TO TWENTY (20) are general questions related to course work so far this semester.
Increasing sample size without changing study design:
A. Increases statistical power
B. Increases precision
C. Increases validity (internal)
D. Decreases bias
E. Both A and B are correct
Question 19
Questions SEVENTEEN (17) TO TWENTY (20) are general questions related to course work so far this semester.
Countries, populations and groups that have higher smoking rates tend to have higher cardiovascular disease rates. This is an example of:
A. Cross-sectional design
B. Ecological design
C. Historical design
D. Observational design
E. Analytical design
Question 20
Questions SEVENTEEN (17) TO TWENTY (20) are general questions related to course work so far this semester.
When conducting a study, randomisation of study participants is the best method to reduce:
A. Selection bias
B. Misclassification bias
C. Diagnostic bias
D. Ascertainment bias
E. Confounding